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Medical English and Spanish cognates: identification and classification

Lourdes Divasson et Isabel León
p. 73-87

Résumés

L’expression « faux amis » (abrégée ci-dessous comme FA) est le terme métalinguistique utilisé pour se référer à des paires de mots qui s’écrivent presque de la même façon dans deux langues différentes mais qui ont un sens différent dans ces deux langues. Le but de cet article est d’identifier et de classifier les FA dans un corpus de vingt articles médicaux écrits en anglais, publiés entre 1994 et 1996 dans de prestigieuses revues médicales. Les FA ont été identifiés par une minutieuse analyse contextuelle, et ont été classifiés selon les deux variables suivantes : types et classes de FA. La fréquence de FA atteint 5,3 % du total de mots de notre corpus, ce qui nous conduit à penser qu’ils méritent une attention spéciale puisqu’il est reconnu qu’ils constituent un problème important pour les terminologues et sont très souvent mal interprétés par les médecins et les étudiants en médecine. Nous pensons donc qu’il serait très utile d’élaborer des tableaux de paires de FA (anglais-espagnol, dans notre cas) les plus fréquemment utilisés dans la littérature médicale de même que des exercices appropriés afin de les présenter aux étudiants au début des cours de lecture et/ou traduction scientifique.

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Introduction

1“False cognate” or “false friend” are metalinguistic terms used to name ‘‘a word which has the same or very similar form in two languages, but which has a different meaning in each’’. (Platt, Richards & Weber 1985: 103). In a written text, it is the orthographical identity or similarity that can lead a second language learner to use the word wrongly, but when it comes to an oral text, a foreign word may sound familiar to us because of its phonological resemblance to a word in our mother tongue.

2The expression faux amis was used for the first time by Maxime Koessler and Jules Derocquigny in their work Les Faux Amis ou les trahisons du vocabulaire anglais in 1928 (Mounin et al. 1974: 139). Robert and Collins (1990: 296a) refer to these pitfalls as “deceptive cognates”. Other coinages for this lexical phenomenon are faux frères, mots sosies and falschen Freunde, among others. Anglophone linguists frequently use the term “false friend”, a calque from French, and there are purists that refer to them as “false cognates”. In Spanish the expressions falsos amigos and términos equívocos (Cuenca 1987) or palabras de traducción engañosa (Navarro & Hernández 1992, 1994) are generally used indistinctly.

3Several scholars have classified these word pairs differently (Larson 1989, Laufer 1990, Moss 1992, Gläser 1995, Maillot 1997), although a distinction between “total” false friends and “partial” ones has been made. In this regard, we adopted here the definitions and classification on semantic criteria offered by R. Gläser in 1995 that establishes three categories of deceptive cognates:

Total false friends are interlingual word pairs with morphological similarity or even identity, but with a completely different meaning […].
Partial false friends usually cover two subgroups:
1. interlingual word pairs with identical [or similar, we believe] morphological structure, but only a partial correspondence of their meaning.
2. intralingual word pairs which share the same [or similar] morphological structure, but have different terminological meanings in different subject areas or even within the same subject area. The polysemy […] is discarded in the textual environment […]. (Gläser 1995: 17).

4Examples of these different false friend types (with the misleading cognate capitalized) are given in Table A – Total false friends (hereafter T or TFF), Table B – Partial 1 false friends (hereafter P1 or P1FF) and Table C – Partial 2 false friends (hereafter P2 or P2FF).

Table A. Total false friends

English

Spanish

while Spanish

English

carbon

carbono

CARBÓN

coal

embarrassed

turbado, avergonzado

EMBARAZADA

pregnant

carbuncle

ántrax

CARBUNCO

anthrax

Table B. Partial 1 false friends

English

Spanish

drug

DROGA / fármaco

to retract

RETRACTARSE / retraer, retirar, replegar

to divert

DIVERTIR / desviar

Table C. Partial 2 false friends

English

Spanish

marked difference

NOTABLE …

marked improvement

NOTORIA …

marked accent

…FUERTE

marked contrast

… MAYOR, or … MÁS ACUSADO

a marked man

… FICHADO

5In Table C “marked” is likely to be translated as marcado/a by the inexperienced reader who does not know of the polysemy of the cognate; thus, the wide variety of lexical equivalences/ alternatives (capitalized in the examples) provided by the dictionary.

6The same holds true for the term control (see Table 8). As so aptly stated by Navarro,

en el inglés médico se abusa hasta la saciedad del galicismo ‘control’ […]. Si recurrimos a la traducción control cada vez que en inglés se utiliza esta palabra estaremos empobreciendo nuestro idioma hasta límites insospechados’’. (2000: 110)

7Most FF are of Greek or Latin origin and although these word pairs may share identical or very similar spelling in English and Spanish, for some reason, they have acquired different meanings in the two languages:

ability” means talent, faculty, power in English while
habilidadmeans skill or cleverness in Spanish
sensible” means wise, aware, appreciative in English while
sensible” means sensitive in Spanish

8On the other hand, certain words from extractions other than Greek or Latin have evolved to orthographical forms similar or very close to Spanish lexemes. For instance, the term gripe (Cuenca 1987) derived from Old English gripan (to hold) is likely to be translated into Spanish as gripe (influenza).

9A number of researchers have approached the discussion of these word pairs in English and Spanish general language vocabulary from different aspects: Hill (1982) and Cuenca (1987) with reference to lexicography; Moss (1992) and Lerchundi & Moreno (1999) focused on the importance of cognate recognition in teaching ESP reading courses to Spanish speakers. Several authors have also dealt with this lexical phenomenon with regard to English for Medical Purposes (EMP): Mackin & Weinberger (1970), Smith Kline & French Sae (1979), Navarro & Hernández (1992, 1993), Congost (1994), Divasson (1997) and Navarro (2000), among others. The Diccionario enciclopédico University de términos médicos (1981) also offers a list of FF in medical contexts.

10Nevertheless, research in contrastive studies so far has focused mainly on General English, one of the exceptions being Gläser’s in 1995 on false friends in English and German in LSP vocabulary with special reference to foreign language teaching. She stated that deceptive cognates are also important, ‘‘often more intriguing in LSP lexicology’’ (Gläser 1995: x-xi). But we do not know of any contrastive English-Spanish study dealing comprehensively and systematically with this lexical phenomenon in the field of ME. This paper is thus devoted to the study of deceptive cognates in today’s ME written discourse.

Corpus and objective

11We gathered a sample that can be considered representative of current ME prose, consisting of twenty research papers, published between 1994 and 1996 in various leading medical journals (The New England Journal of Medicine, The Lancet, Journal of the American Medical Association, etc.), and pertaining to twenty major specialties (for the list of references, see Appendix 1). The corpus is made up of 89,688 running words. This research is part of a wider project carried out at the University of la Laguna, Tenerife, which studies FF in the four ME genres (Editorials, Review Papers, Articles, Research Papers and Case Reports).

The objectives of this paper are threefold:

  • To identify the false friends present in the corpus.

  • To classify them as TFF or partial, and within the latter category as P1FF and P2FF.

  • To determine the word classes they belong to as well as their ranking.

12Our final aim is to elaborate a list of deceptive cognates which could serve in EMP courses and in the training of translators.

Method

13Our analysis is limited to the orthographical properties of the interlingual word pairs that cause interference. Over the years we have gathered an ever increasing list which we use as a Reference List of FF. Most of them became evident in the classroom situation with medical students and postgraduates in Medicine, or when correcting exams. Others have been collected from dictionaries of false cognates in General English (Hill 1982, Cuenca 1987), Medical English dictionaries (Stedman Bilingüe 1999), the above mentioned works of Mackin & Weinberger (1970), Navarro & Hernández (1992, 1994) and Navarro (2000), among others.

14In this article every item of our compiled reference list of FF is considered a lexeme, that is, a word which has an entry in the dictionary. Their multiple inflected or case forms in the corpus are referred to as occurrences.

15Every FF from our reference list has been identified by means of a contextual analysis. Their frequency was recorded and their percentages with regard to the total number of running words were computed. The deceptive cognates found were classified according to two groups of variables: the three FF types (T, P1 and P2) and the four main word classes (the so-called full, lexical or content words) – nouns, verbs, adjectives and adverbs. TFF were easily identified. Conversely, P1/P2FF were difficult to differentiate and we have encountered many borderline cases which have not been included in our analysis.

Results

Table 1. Results: Final number of FF (lexemes and occurrences)

TOTAL NUMBER OF FALSE FRIENDS (FF)

TOTAL NUMBER OF THEIR OCCURRENCES (OCC.)

TOTAL (T)

73 (18.86%)

982 (20.50%)

PARTIAL 1 (P1)

62 (16.02%)

730 (15.24%)

PARTIAL 2 (P2)

252 (65.11%)

3,077 (64.25%)

FINAL NUMBER

387 (100%)

4,789 (100%)

Figure 1. Final number of FF (lexemes and occurrences) distributed in types

Figure 1. Final number of FF (lexemes and occurrences) distributed in types

Table 2. Results: Final number of FF (lexemes and occurrences) distributed in word classes

TOTAL NUMBER OF FALSE FRIENDS (FF)

TOTAL NUMBER OF THEIR OCCURRENCES (OCC.)

NOUNS

92 (23.77%)

814 (16.99%)

ADJECTIVES

182 (47.02%)

2,873 (59.99%)

VERBS

96 (24.80%)

1,053 (21.98%)

ADVERBS

17 (4.39%)

49 (1.02%)

FINAL NUMBER

387 (100%)

4,789 (100%)

Figure 2. Final number of FF (lexemes and occurrences) distributed in word classes

Figure 2. Final number of FF (lexemes and occurrences) distributed in word classes

16There were three times as many P2FF as TFF, and four times as many P2FF as P1FF (see Table 1 and Figure 1). Besides, the total number of noun occurrences was three times more than that of adjectives and verbs and almost 60 times more than that of adverbs (see Table 2 and Figure 2).

Table 3. Overall percentage of T, P1 and P2 FF occurrences with respect to the total number of running words in the corpus

CORPUS SIZE (running words)

FALSE FRIENDS (occurrences)

89,688

4,789

100%

5.339%

Figure 3. Overall percentage of T, P1 and P2 FF occurrences with respect to the total number of running words in the corpus

Figure 3. Overall percentage of T, P1 and P2 FF occurrences with respect to the total number of running words in the corpus

17Table 3 and Figure 3 illustrate that the 387 FF lexemes gave 4,789 occurrences in the 89,688 running words. The proportion of those occurrences in the biomedical corpus then reached 5.3%. One can thus infer that in a 6,000-word-research paper (the length of about half of those analysed in our corpus), a reader may encounter about 318 FF forms, or an average of 159 if the article were 3,000 words long, which means more than five deceptive cognates in every 100 running words of text). This may imply a considerable risk of misinterpretation of the original article.

Table 4. Distribution of FF types in word classes (number of lexemes)

FF

Nouns

Adjectives

Verbs

Adverbs

T

44 (24.17%)

17 (18.47%)

8 (8.33%)

4 (23.52%)

P1

33 (18.13%)

14 (15.21%)

13 (13.54%)

2 (11.76%)

P2

105 (57.69%)

61 (66.30%)

75 (78.12%)

11 (6470 %)

FINAL NUMBER

182 (100%)

92 (100%)

96 (100%)

17 (100%)

Figure 4. Distribution of FF types in word classes (number of lexemes)

Figure 4. Distribution of FF types in word classes (number of lexemes)

18As we can see in Table 4 and Figure 4, among the 387 FF lexemes identified in the corpus, the number of adjectives and verbs was similar, while there were about twice as many nouns, and only a few adverbs. With regard to the three types of FF, nouns accounted for roughly a 60% of the total number of FF lexemes.

Table 5. Distribution of FF types in word classes (number of occurrences)

FF

Nouns occ.

Adjectives occ.

Verbs occ.

Adverbs occ.

T

764 (26.59%)

149 (18.30%)

48 (4.55%)

21 (42.85%)

P1

322 (11.20%)

214 (26.28%)

190 (18.04%)

4 (8.16%)

P2

1787 (62.19%)

451 (55.40%)

815 (77.39%)

24 (48.97%)

FINAL NUMBER

2,873 (100%)

814 (100%)

1,053 (100%)

49 (100%)

Figure 5. Distribution of FF types in word classes (number of occurrences)

Figure 5. Distribution of FF types in word classes (number of occurrences)

19As can be seen in Table 5 and Graph 5, among the 4,789 FF occurrences found in the corpus, the number of adjectives and verbs was similar, while there were almost three times as many nouns, and again only a few adverbs. Considering the different types of FF, nouns accounted for almost a 60% of the total number of FF occurrences. A list of some examples of T, P1, and P2FF, including the four word classes analysed in this research, is provided below. Appendix 2 presents all the data in detail (Distribution of FF types in word classes in relation to the number of lexemes and occurrences).

Table 6. Example of list of false friends

English

Spanish

while Spanish

English

Nouns

influenza

gripe

INFLUENCIA

influence

injury

lesión herida, traumatismo, daño

INJURIA

insult,offence, slanderous allegation

parent

progenitor

PARIENTE

relative

physician

médico

FÍSICO

physicist

Adjectives

actual

real, verdadero, efectivo, concreto, propiamente dicho

ACTUAL

present, current

major

importante, principal, grave, serio

MAYOR

greater, larger, bigger, older

consistent

constante, coherente, indicativo

CONSISTENTE

solid, sound, firm

eventual

final, definitivo, permanente

EVENTUAL

possible, casual, temporary

Verbs

to remove

extirpar, quitar, sacar, extraer

REMOVER

to stir, bring up again

to stretch

extender, estirar, forzar

ESTRECHAR

to make (...) narrower

to rest

descansar

RESTAR

to subtract, deduct

to record

anotar, registrar

RECORDAR

to remember, remind

Adverbs

ultimately

en última instancia, finalmente, llegado el momento, en el fondo

ULTIMAMENTE

recently, lately

currently

actualmente, hoy en día

CORRIENTEMENTE

ordinarily

Table 7. Examples of P1FF collected in the sample

20We present in capital letters the Spanish cognate that the inexperienced translator is most likely to use instead of the correct word in a particular context.

English

Spanish

Nouns

canal

CANAL/ conducto (tubular structure)

catheter

CATÉTER / sonda / drena

condition

CONDICIÓN / afección, enfermedad, proceso

disorder

DESORDEN / enfermedad, trastorno

lens

LENTE / cristalino

relative

RELATIVO / pariente, familiar

Adjectives

adequate

ADECUADO / suficiente

clinical

CLÍNICO / frío or aséptico (unemotional)

domestic

DOMÉSTICO / local or nacional

dramatic

DRAMÁTICO / espectacular / drástico

aggressive

AGRESIVO / dinámico, audaz / traumático

apparent

APARENTE / claro, notorio, evidente

Verbs

to alter

ALTERAR, cambiar / castrar

to compose

COMPONER / calmarse, sosegarse, tranquilizarse

to discharge

DESCARGAR / dar de alta (from hospital) / supurar /despedir

to prevent

PREVENIR / impedir, evitar

Adverbs

adequately

ADECUADAMENTE / suficientemente

evidently

EVIDENTEMENTE /al parecer, por lo visto

21We present in capital letters the word that the inexperienced translator is most likely to use to the detriment of other terms (also capitalized in our examples and taken from Navarro 2000) which would be more appropriate.

Table 8. Examples of P2FF identified in the corpus

English

Spanish

Nouns

test

TEST

Apgar test

ÍNDICE de...

blood test

ANÁLISIS de...

diagnostic test

PRUEBA de...

vaginal smear test

CITOLOGÍA...

control

CONTROL

birth control

ANTICONCEPCIÓN

malaria control

LUCHA...

self-control

AUTODOMINIO

control of symptoms

SUPRESIÓN ...

control visit

DE REVISIÓN

control of an epidemic

CONTENCIÓN ...

control group

... DE REFERENCIA

tract

TRACTO

digestive tract

TUBO...

auditory tract

VÍAS...

genital male tract

APARATO...

olfatory tract

CINTILLA or PÉNDULO...

outflow tract

...INFUNDÍBULO (of left ventricle)

posterior tracts

CORDONES...

rubrospinal tract

HAZ...

Adjectives

established

ESTABLECIDO

established custom

...ARRAIGADA

established diagnosis

... DE CERTEZA

established fact

...ADMITIDO or DEMOSTRADO

established staff

...FIJO or DE PLANTILLA

established use

...CONSAGRADO

established name

...OFICIAL

mental

MENTAL

mental ability / work

...INTELECTUAL

mental clarity

GRADO DE DE LUCIDEZ or CONSCIENCIA

mental stress

...PSÍQUICA, NERVIOSA

mental hospital

...PSIQUIÁTRICO, MANICOMIO

mental medicine

PSIQUIATRÍA

systemic

SISTÉMICO

systemic circulation

...GENERAL or MAYOR

systemic disease

...GENERALIZADA

systemic infection

...DISEMINADA

systemic vascular resistance

...PERIFÉRICA

Verbs

to check

CHEQUEAR

to check a hemorrage

DETENER...

to check an epidemic

CONTENER...

to check blood

ANALIZAR...

to check the results

VERIFICAR, COMPROBAR...

to control

CONTROLAR

to control a hemorrage

DETENER, RESTAÑAR...

to control the blood pressure

MEDIR, VIGILAR, ESTABILIZAR...

to control the effects of an overdose

NEUTRALIZAR...

to control the temperature

REGULAR...

to control the anemia

CORREGIR...

to control a crisis

YUGULAR...

Adverbs

entirely

ENTERAMENTE, totalmente, exclusivamente, unicamente

precisely

PRECISAMENTE, con precisión, exactamente, minuciosamente

Discussion and conclusion

22As was expected, some FF are also found in General English. Differentiation of deceptive cognates into P1 and P2 categories has not been an easy task, and we found many borderline instances, a conclusion also reached by other researchers (Gläser 1995). From the previously detailed data one can draw general conclusions about the importance of the different FF types and their relevance according to the word classes. Firstly, FF of the T and P1 types can be expected to be the least common in the biomedical research written discourse (in our corpus, 982 and 730 occurrences respectively of the 4,789 instances found). However, students’ or readers’ overlooking them may have serious consequences for the correct interpretation of the source language text (they usually consist in meaning transgressions). Secondly, although the kind of mistake caused by the misunderstanding of P2FF instances may be much more a kind of inaccuracy (generally misunderstanding of very subtle nuances), its effect may cause a progressive erosion and impoverishment of the target language, and much more so if we consider their much greater frequency (3,077 occurrences in the sample). Therefore, we need to be on the alert for misleading collocations. Thirdly, nouns ranked first in all the frequency lists (close to 60% of the total number of FF occurrences were nouns), followed by adjectives and verbs with a similar distribution, except for the cases of P2 (in which verbs considerably outnumbered adjectives) and T lexemes (in which the opposite holds true). Therefore, regarding word classes, a representative FF reference list for pedagogical purposes should only include a very limited number of adverbs (just 49 occurrences in 89,688 running words), its major goal being the noun class.

23Our findings differ slightly from those of the technical texts analyzed by Lerchundi & Moreno (1999), for whom the most frequent kind of FF was the P1 type (in their work, falsos amigos 2), closely followed by TFF (falsos amigos 1). On the other hand, in their study, P2FF (falsos amigos 3) were the least frequent ones, while in ours the opposite held true. The results of Gläser’s analysis (1995), based on a corpus of ESP text-books from a variety of fields, show a word class distribution quite similar to ours: nouns ranked first, with little difference in the number of verbs and adjectives.

24The results of our analysis lead us to believe that deceptive cognates deserve careful consideration in the teaching of EMP to postgraduates and medical students as well as in the training of technical translators. This is of paramount importance in the Spanish scientist’s case if we take into account that for the last thirty years a great proportion of biomedical Spanish literature has been the product of translations from English, frequently considered quite inadequate (Herranz 1984, Tapia 1991, Navarro & Hernández 1992), false cognates being one of the most common kinds of mistake. Although it is practically impossible to indicate every single source of error, we suggest that more attention should be paid to them in academic syllabi.

25It is thus our contention that some reference tables with the most frequent word pairs and their equivalent, together with well-chosen exercises to practise them, could be of great help if offered at early stages of reading comprehension and translation courses. They may increase the trainees’ – and their teachers’ – awareness of this complex and pervasive problem. The results obtained with some exercises we have designed consisting of identification and translation of contextualized FF are encouraging. In conclusion, similar studies based on other Romance languages could be of interest for the subsequent comparison of results.

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Annexe

Appendix 1. List of Corpus References

Benedetti, J., L. Corey and R. Ashley. 1994. “Recurrence rates in genital herpes after symptomatic first-episode infection”. Annals of Internal Medicine 121/11, 847-854.

Boven, H.H. Van, R.J. Olds, S.L. Thein, P.H. Reitsma, D.A. Lane, E. Briët, J.P. Vandenbroucke and T.F.R. Rosendaal. 1994. “Hereditary antithrombin deficiency: Heterogeneity of the molecular basis and mortality in Dutch families”. Blood 84, 12, 4209-4213.

Case, C.P., V.G. Langkamer, C. James, M.R. Palmer, A.J. Kemp, P.F. Heap and L. Solomon. 1994. “Widespread dissemination of metal debris from implants”. The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery 76/B.5, 701-12.

Charabi, S., L. Illinken, M. Tos and J. Thomsen. 1994. “Histopathology and growth pattern of cystic acoustic neuromas”. Laryngoscope 104/11, 1348-1352.

Christian, T.F., T.D. Miller, K.R. Bailey and R.J. Gibbons. 1994. “Exercise tomographic thallium-201 imaging in patients with severe coronary artery disease and normal electrocardiograms”. Annals of Internal Medicine 121/11, 825-832.

Coffin, B., F. Azpiroz, F. Guarner and J.R. Malagelada. 1994. “Selective Gastric hypersensitivity and reflex hyporeactivity in functional dyspepsia”. Gastroenterology 107/5, 1345-1351.

Criqui, M.H. and B.L. Ringel. 1994. “Does diet or alcohol explain the French paradox?”. The Lancet 344, 1718-23.

Fergusson, D. M. and L.J. Horwood. 1994. “Nocturnal enuresis and behavioral problems in adolescence: A 15-Year longitudinal study”. Pediatrics 94/5, 662-668.

Gerberding, J.L. 1994. “Incidence and prevalence of Human Immunodeficiency Virus, hepatitis B Virus, hepatitis C virus, and cytomegalovirus among health care personnel at risk for blood exposure: Final report from a longitudinal study”. The Journal of Infectious Diseases 170, 1410-1407.

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Appendix 2

Final Data of the Study – Table 1

FF

Nouns

Nouns occ.

Adjectives

Adjectives occ.

Verbs

Verbs occ.

Adverbs

Adverbs occ.

Total FF

Total occ.

T

44

764

17

149

8

48

4

21

73

982

P1

33

322

14

214

13

190

2

4

62

730

P2

105

1,787

61

451

75

815

11

24

252

3,077

Lexemes

182

2,873

92

814

96

1,053

17

49

387

4,789

Final Data of the Study – Table 2

WORD CLASS followed by OCC

TFF followed by OCC

P1FF followed by OCC

P2FF followed by OCC

FF followed by OCC

Nouns

44

33

102

182

Nouns. Occ

764

322

1,787

2,873

Adjectives

17

14

61

92

Adjectives occ.

149

214

451

814

Verbs

8

13

75

96

Verbs occ.

48

190

815

1,053

Adverbs

4

2

11

17

Adverbs occ.

21

4

24

49

Total FF

73

62

252

387

Total occ.

982

730

3,077

4,789

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Table des illustrations

Titre Figure 1. Final number of FF (lexemes and occurrences) distributed in types
URL http://asp.revues.org/docannexe/image/1607/img-1.png
Fichier image/png, 32k
Titre Figure 2. Final number of FF (lexemes and occurrences) distributed in word classes
URL http://asp.revues.org/docannexe/image/1607/img-2.png
Fichier image/png, 32k
Titre Figure 3. Overall percentage of T, P1 and P2 FF occurrences with respect to the total number of running words in the corpus
URL http://asp.revues.org/docannexe/image/1607/img-3.png
Fichier image/png, 27k
Titre Figure 4. Distribution of FF types in word classes (number of lexemes)
URL http://asp.revues.org/docannexe/image/1607/img-4.png
Fichier image/png, 21k
Titre Figure 5. Distribution of FF types in word classes (number of occurrences)
URL http://asp.revues.org/docannexe/image/1607/img-5.png
Fichier image/png, 24k
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Pour citer cet article

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Lourdes Divasson et Isabel León, « Medical English and Spanish cognates: identification and classification », ASp, 35-36 | 2002, 73-87.

Référence électronique

Lourdes Divasson et Isabel León, « Medical English and Spanish cognates: identification and classification », ASp [En ligne], 35-36 | 2002, mis en ligne le 17 août 2010, consulté le 22 octobre 2017. URL : http://asp.revues.org/1607 ; DOI : 10.4000/asp.1607

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Auteurs

Lourdes Divasson

Lourdes Divasson est enseignant-chercheur à l’Université de La Laguna (Tenerife), Département d’anglais, Faculté de Médecine, où elle est responsable de l’enseignement de l’anglais. Son domaine de recherche concerne le discours médical. ldivass@ull.es

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Isabel León

Isabel León est enseignante associée à l’Université de La Laguna (Tenerife), Département d’anglais, Faculté de Médecine. Elle prépare une thèse « La estructura funcional del sintagma nominal inglés: análisis de un corpus biomédico », sous la direction des professeurs José Gómez Soliño et Françoise Salager-Meyer. ikleon@ull.es

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